Studentenverbindungen & Academic Associations
At Krakow & Lviv (Lemberg) University, References

Looking at the activities of Studentenverbindungen in various university towns of the Habsburg Empire, one can notice two tendencies: Firstly, that formalised Studentenverbindungen occurred relatively late, mostly after the Ausgleich. Secondly, that there is a correlation between ethnic diversity within the student body and the number of (usually nationally segregated) Studentenverbindungen. For example, the ethnically most diverse university town of the Habsburg Empire, Chernivtsi, was also considered the ultimate Verbindungs-centre in Eastern Europe and is still portrayed in this manner, often with nostalgic undertones.

On contrast, activities of Studentenverbindungen in the thoroughly Polish city of Krakow are limited and less defined by nationalist objectives than those in Chernivtsi. Furthermore, the degree to which they practiced the German academic traditions (for example, the traditional costume, gatherings or singing) was not as high as elsewhere. Lothar Selke listed all student associations with a certain amount of Verbindungs-traditions in the Habsburg Empire.

Studentenverbindungen in Krakow

For Krakow, he names the "Bibliothek der Juristen", founded in 1850; the "Bibliothek der Hörer der medizinischen Fakultät", founded in 1850; the "Akademischer Leseverein", founded in 1864 - which later gave rise to Studentenverbindungs-like clubs, so-called "Zirkel" (Selke mentions a "Akademischer Gesangsverein"); the "Bractwo Akademickie Filarelow", founded in 1884, which practiced academic fencing (Mensur), organised sports and study groups; the "Akademischer Unterstützungsverein" (no foundation date available); and the "Verein Deutscher Hochschüler", founded 1918 as a lobby for German students at Polish Universities (Krakow, Lviv, Posen and Warsaw; dissolved in 1939). Note that from this list I am not able to tell the degree to which these associations match the present Austrian concept of a formal Studentenverbindung; what is obvious, though, is the national objective of financial aid clubs (Unterstützungsverein) and reading clubs (Leseverein) for speakers of a certain language (matching roughly with nationalities).

Studentenverbindungen in Lviv

At Lviv, the Studentenverbindungs scene was more diverse: The "Unterstützungsverein für Hörer der k.k. Technischen Hochschule", founded in 1861 (legalised in 1866; German); the "Towazyrwo Bratniej", founded in 1865 (as a Unterstützungsverein); the Pomocy stuchaczow and Wszschnicy Lwowskiej (founding dates or constitution of both things unknown); the Czytelmia akademicka, founded in 1867 (Unterstützungsverein); Akademiczeckyj Kruzok, founded in 1871 (Unterstützungsverein, Ruthenian); Biblioteka Sinchaczow Prawa, founded in 1875 (reading society and library donor club for the faculty of law); the "Verein der Hörer der technischen Akademie in Lemberg", founded in 1877 (Unterstützungsverein, German); the Akademyczene Bractwo, founded 1862 (Unterstützungsverein, Ruthenian); the "Akademisches Corps Leopolia", founded 1893 (German; concluded a collaboration with a Corps in Chernivtsi; dissolved 1940); and the "Akademisches Corps Gasconia", founded 1913 (German; dissolved in 1940); as well as the "Verein Deutscher Hochschüler" as mentioned above.

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Selke, Lothar: „Hohe Schulen als Erbe der Donaumonarchie“. Beiträge zur österreichischen Studentengeschichte, Band 7. Vienna, 1981.

Selke, Lothar: „Die jetzt nicht mehr österreichischen Hochschulen der Monarchie und ihre Korporationen.“ Beiträge zur österreichischen Studentengeschichte, Band 4. Vienna, 1978.

Fleig Frank, Alison: “Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia”. Harvard University Press, Cambridge/Mass., London, 2005.

Rumpler, Helmut; Urbanitsch, Peter (Editors): „Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848-1918. Bd. VIII: Politische Öffentlichkeit und Zivilgesellschaft.“, Volumes: „Teilband 1: Vereine, Parteien und Interessenverbände als Träger der politischen Partizipation.“; „Teilband 2: Die Presse als Faktor der politischen Mobilisierung.“ Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, 2006.

Mack, Karlheinz (Editor): „Galizien um die Jahrhundertwende. Politische, soziale und kulturelle Verbindungen mit Österreich“. Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, Vienna, 1990.

Röskau-Rydel, Isabel: „Deutsche Geschichte im Osten Europas - Galizien, Bukowina, Moldau“. Verlag Siedler-Verlag, Berlin, 2002.

Schneider, Ludwig: „Das Kolonisationswerk Josef II. in Galizien. Darstellung und Namenslisten“. Verlag Hirzel, Leipzig, 1939; Reprint Scherer Verlag, Berlin, 1989.

Information retrieved and verified as far as possible in April 2009:


Further Reading

Studentenverbindung: Fraternities and Burschenschaft

Wikipedia on the Habsburg Empire (Habsburg Monarchy)

Wikipedia on Nationalism

Sources for 19th century History (key to nationalism)